Seqanswers Leaderboard Ad

Collapse

Announcement

Collapse
No announcement yet.
X
 
  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

  • Assessing the Efficacy of Genome Sequencing for Diagnosing Genetic Disorders

    Genetic mutations in human DNA can disrupt the formation of proteins essential for various bodily functions, leading to severe diseases and disabilities. Many of these genetic disorders are linked to specific genes and are diagnosed using a standard procedure known as exome sequencing. This method focuses on analyzing the exome, the portion of DNA that directly codes for proteins, which constitutes about 1% of the total DNA but is significant for diagnosis.

    “However, in two-thirds of cases, exome analysis does not lead to a diagnosis, which raises the question of what to do next,” stated Professor Rami Abou Jamra, Professor of Medical Genomics at Leipzig University and Head of Genetic Diagnostics at the Institute of Human Genetics at the University of Leipzig Medical Center (UKL). “For patients and their families, a clear diagnosis means a great deal: not only does it confirm that the disease is not their own fault—it also paves the way for public recognition and, where possible, personalized treatment,” he added.

    Comparative Study of Exome and Genome Sequencing
    To evaluate the benefits of genome sequencing over exome sequencing, scientists from the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and Harvard Medical School in Boston conducted a study involving 744 families. These families included children suspected of having genetic diseases and their parents, some of whom had previously undergone exome sequencing without receiving a definitive diagnosis. The Institute of Human Genetics in Leipzig independently analyzed 350 families using genome sequencing, specifically cases where exome sequencing had been inconclusive. The first 78 cases from Leipzig were included in the joint study with the Boston researchers.

    The researchers specifically employed short-read sequencing to investigate the DNA of these individuals. “Compared to exome sequencing, genome sequencing provided clarity in an additional 8% of cases: that is significantly more,” explained Jamra. “This method is particularly helpful if a genetic mutation that causes a disease is due to the absence of very small segments of DNA, the elongation of unspecific sequences, or if the mutation is not located in the coding part at all,” he elaborated.

    Advantages of Genome Sequencing
    Exome sequencing involves chemically enriching the coding regions extracted from DNA, which can result in a loss of crucial quality and information. This lost information might contain essential clues about genetic mutations. Additionally, gene segments outside the exome play vital roles, such as regulating protein synthesis mechanisms, and are entirely overlooked by exome analysis. By examining the entire genome, researchers aim to uncover new disease patterns and mechanisms.

    “Our data suggests that genome sequencing should be used more quickly, especially when exome sequencing has not provided clarity,” noted Jamra. He emphasized that the extensive dataset obtained from this study supports the clinical application of genome sequencing, addressing past uncertainties about its advisability in the literature.

    Future Directions in Genetic Diagnostics
    Despite being approximately two and a half times more expensive than exome sequencing, genome sequencing offers a long-term advantage: it allows for the re-examination of sequencing data as new genetic mutations associated with diseases are discovered and documented globally.

    Looking ahead, Professor Abou Jamra is enthusiastic about the future. “We will read more genomes, and we will do it all with an even more revealing technique called long-read sequencing,” he says. “We want to decode all genetic diseases.”

    Publication Details
    Wojcik, M. H., Lemire, G., Berger, E., Zaki, M. S., Wissmann, M., Win, W., ... & O’Donnell-Luria, A. (2024). Genome Sequencing for Diagnosing Rare Diseases. New England Journal of Medicine, 390(21), 1985-1997. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2314761

Latest Articles

Collapse

  • seqadmin
    Exploring the Dynamics of the Tumor Microenvironment
    by seqadmin




    The complexity of cancer is clearly demonstrated in the diverse ecosystem of the tumor microenvironment (TME). The TME is made up of numerous cell types and its development begins with the changes that happen during oncogenesis. “Genomic mutations, copy number changes, epigenetic alterations, and alternative gene expression occur to varying degrees within the affected tumor cells,” explained Andrea O’Hara, Ph.D., Strategic Technical Specialist at Azenta. “As...
    07-08-2024, 03:19 PM
  • seqadmin
    Exploring Human Diversity Through Large-Scale Omics
    by seqadmin


    In 2003, researchers from the Human Genome Project (HGP) announced the most comprehensive genome to date1. Although the genome wasn’t fully completed until nearly 20 years later2, numerous large-scale projects, such as the International HapMap Project and 1000 Genomes Project, continued the HGP's work, capturing extensive variation and genomic diversity within humans. Recently, newer initiatives have significantly increased in scale and expanded beyond genomics, offering a more detailed...
    06-25-2024, 06:43 AM

ad_right_rmr

Collapse

News

Collapse

Topics Statistics Last Post
Started by seqadmin, 07-16-2024, 05:49 AM
0 responses
27 views
0 likes
Last Post seqadmin  
Started by seqadmin, 07-15-2024, 06:53 AM
0 responses
32 views
0 likes
Last Post seqadmin  
Started by seqadmin, 07-10-2024, 07:30 AM
0 responses
40 views
0 likes
Last Post seqadmin  
Started by seqadmin, 07-03-2024, 09:45 AM
0 responses
205 views
0 likes
Last Post seqadmin  
Working...
X